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Міжнародна організація зі стандартизації


What is diabetes?

Diabetes (lat. Diabetes mellitus) - a complex systemic disease caused by absolute or relative deficiency of the hormone insulin, causing the body develops carbohydrate metabolism, including glucose inhibited waste tissues. The first sign of diabetes - increased blood glucose (hyperglycemia) and as a consequence - the selection of the urine (glucosuria). At the same time or later violated and metabolic processes of fat, protein, water and salt balance. It formed a powerful loop hormonal and metabolic (exchange) changes that may ultimately lead to a so-called late diabetic complications of myocardial infarction, stroke, severe vascular lesions of the retina, kidneys and other systems. This puts diabetes in the rank of the most pressing health and social problems requiring urgent solutions.

Established that diabetes is extremely heterogeneous disease. It happens that he is - only a manifestation of the underlying disease. This so-called symptomatic diabetes collateral, for example, damage to the endocrine glands, thyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal glands. This form of diabetes can be caused and taking certain drugs. If successful treatment of the underlying disease disappear and clinical manifestations of diabetes.

True but diabetes is divided into two main types: insulin-dependent (I type), formerly called juvenile, and insulin (II type) or adult diabetes.

How to diagnose diabetes?

Діагностичними критеріями цукрового діабету є:

  • Підвищення концентрації глюкози в плазмі або в цільній капілярній крові натще й через 2 год. після навантаження глюкозою.
  • Аналіз на глікозильований гемоглобін відображає середній рівень концентрації глюкози в крові пацієнта протягом 2-3 місяців, що передують дослідженню.
  • Визначення C-пептиду для диференціальної діагностики ІНЦД і ІЗЦД.
  • Визначення інсуліну застосовується для підтвердження діагнозу у людей із прикордонними порушеннями толерантності до глюкози. ІЗЦД характеризується зниженим , ІНЦД - нормальним або підвищеним базальним рівнем інсуліну.
  • Визначення антитіл до інсуліну - для встановлення предіабету ІЗЦД (до лікування інсуліном).

ІНЦД – інсуліннезалежний цукровий діабет

ІЗЦД - інсулінозалежний цукровий діабет



Глюкоза в плазмі натще

4,22 - 6,11 ммоль /л

Глюкоза ( цільна капілярна кров)

3,38 - 5,55 ммоль/л

Через 2 год послу навантаження глюкозою  

< 7,8 ммоль/л


0,5 – 2,0 мкг/л.

Рівень інсуліну

15-180 пмоль/л ( 2-25 мкед/л)

Антитіла до інсуліну


Глікозильований гемоглобін

4,5 –6,5 % від загальної кількості гемоглобіну

Обстежуваному встановлюється діагноз цукрового діабету, якщо рівень глюкози цільної капілярної крові натще становить 6,7 ммоль/л і вище, а через 2 год після прийому глюкози - 11,1 ммоль/л і вище.

Are there methods of prevention of diabetes?

  • Eat right! Eat foods that are low in fat, with more plant fibers. Five dishes of vegetables and fruit a day. Eat more foods rich in complex carbohydrates. This slow flow of glucose into the blood, will maintain low cholesterol levels. (Eat bread from wheat flour, pasta, rice, vegetables, oats, barley, cabbage, buckwheat, potatoes).
  • Do not create a large burden on the pancreas! Eat small portions severely in 4 hours. This is the best way to provide the necessary blood insulin to digest food that you ate.
  • Do not eat sugar and salt! Even a very small amount of sugar eaten to heaven may raise its level in the blood. A salty food dramatically increases blood pressure.
  • Watch your weight!
  • Go in for sports! Do light exercise at least 5 times a week reduces the risk of contracting diabetes by 50%.
  • Drink vitamins!
  • Do not be nervous!

What are the causes of diabetes?

The causes of diabetes types I and II are fundamentally different.

Type I diabetes occurs most often in people aged 30 years, it affects about 10-15% of the number of patients. One of the reasons I diabetes typu- defeat viruses beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that produce insulin. In most patients, the detection of diabetes is preceded by viral diseases, including mumps (mumps), rubella, hepatitis. Scientists think that the virus affecting the beta cells of the pancreas only those who have a genetic predisposition to diabetes. In many Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which is based on a defect in the immune system.

The majority of patients (approximately 85%) suffer from insulin-dependent (II type) diabetes. In patients with type II diabetes, the beta cells produce sufficient or even increased amounts of insulin, but the tissues lose their property to take it a specific signal. If diabetes combined with obesity (70%), the main cause of resistance insulin is that adipose tissue is a kind of screen blocks the action of insulin. To break through this blockade, beta cells to deal with the increased load, and eventually comes exhaustion, that is the relative lack of moves in the absolute. However, and this is very important to emphasize insulin-dependent diabetes does not pass while in insulin.

In patients with type II diabetes who have normal body weight, cause of the disease is a violation signal perception insulin receptors located on the cell surface.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

In some cases, diabetes is the time makes itself felt. Symptoms of diabetes are different in diabetes I and II. Sometimes, there may not be any signs at all, and diabetes exhibit at the planned review of a doctor. But there is a set of symptoms of diabetes of both types. , Signs, depending on the degree of reduction of insulin secretion, duration of disease and individual patient characteristics.

The main signs of diabetes:

  • Increased thirst.
  • Frequent urination at night.
  • Dry skin.
  • Weight loss.
  • Leg cramps.
  • Violations of view.
  • Itching of the skin.

Symptoms of type I diabetes include frequent urination, thirst, nausea, vomiting, weakness and fatigue, weight loss (despite normal or even increased eating), constant hunger, irritability. In children, bedwetting is one of the signs of diabetes, especially in cases where the child is still in bed not mochylasya. When I type diabetes there are situations when blood glucose is either too high or too low. Each of these states require ambulance.

The symptoms of type II diabetes include itching, blurred vision, unusual thirst, drowsiness, fatigue, skin infections, slow healing wounds, numbness and paresthesias of feet. This disease appears in adulthood and is usually associated with malnutrition. In diabetes there as flu-like symptoms, loss of hair on the legs, increased hair growth on the face and yellow small growths on the body, called xanthoma. Balanoposthitis (inflammation of the foreskin) is sometimes the first sign of diabetes and is associated with frequent urination.